SNOV - Jean-Christophe KOMOROWSKI








Summary: The Volcanological and Sismological Observatories of IPGP and the "Pôle de télédétection des Volcans" of OPGC are designed for monitoring geological phenomenons in order to provide data for scientific research in volcanology. The 3 overseas observatories (OVSG at Soufrière at Guadeloupe, OVSM at Montagne Pelée at Martinique and OVPF at Piton de la Fournaise at La Réunion) of IPGP are operating large monitoring networks set at the regional scale on the lesser Antilles Arc and on the Réunion Island hot spot. In addition, local observation networks are dedicated to monitor the volcanic activity of Soufrière de Guadeloupe, Montagne Pelée de Martinique and Piton de la Fournaise-La Réunion. These 3 observatories develop and contribute to more specific scientific research programs (ANR : DOMOSCAN, UNDERVOLC, CASAVA, DIAPHANE, STRAP, SLIDEVOLC, RAVEX, HIPERSIS, LAVA, …) in volcanology and on the tectonic context of volcanoes. In the last five years, SNOV collected data contributed to more than 190 scientific papers and many technical papers for local authorities in charge of the management of the consequences of the telluric events and risk mitigations (Préfecture, BRGM reports, MEDDE, Plan de prévention des risques, …). The goal of the SNOV aims at understanding the volcanological phenomena via monitoring 3 active volcanoes: - A very active hot spot volcano, the Piton de la Fournaise at La Réunion. Since the 80's, the mean eruption rate has been more than 2 lava flows per year, giving fantastic opportunities to observe the developing of eruptions in the context of the state of strain of the volcanic edifice. A particular attention is given to build eruption precursors for predicting the lava flow parameters (time, amplitude, lava flow emission point, …). The monitored area, initially restricted to the Piton de la Fournaise volcano, was extended to include the whole La Réunion Island. - Two subduction zone volcanoes, the Soufrière at Guadeloupe and the Montagne Pelée at Martinique, for which potential volcanic hazards are very large, as illustrated by the 1902 Montagne Pelée Crisis and the ongoing nearby Montserrat Island volcanic crisis and more recently the kick’em Jenny crisis. These edifices rest on the Lesser Antilles subduction where the tectonic structures at large scale play an essential role on the activity of the volcanoes of the Arc and consequently for some parameters, the monitored areas are extended to the Lesser Antilles Arc via partnerships with regional actors (UWI-SRC, USGS,PRSN, Funvisis, ...).and possibly, other volcanoes, for testing new technology. For data distributions, a webtools, Webobs, and a web service, Volobsis, are developped and now operational for the IPGP supervised observatories (OVSG, OVSM & OVPF). The “Pôle de Télédétection des Volcans” of OPGC, the remote sensing component of the Observatory of Clermont-Ferrand (OPGC), has expertise both in satellite and ground-based remote sensing of active volcanoes. That includes: 1. Radar interferometry (SO OI2) 2. Thermal infrared satellite observations (SO Hotvolc) 3. Ground-based instruments, such as Doppler radars (SO Voldorad), DOAS (SO GazVolc) and a multiparameters database of the volcano dynamics (SO Dynvolc). These techniques form the core of the observing systems of volcano observation at OPGC. Using these techniques allow the detection and characterization the processes involved in volcanic activity, from the source to the upper atmosphere, such as degassing, deformation, flow, fragmentation and transport. Involved observatories : OPGC (Observatoire de Physique du Globe de Clermond-Ferrand IPGP (Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris) Other organizations involved : Conseils Généraux et régionaux de la Guadeloupe et de la Réunion, collectivité territoriale de Martinique, The Seismic Research Centre de l’University of the West Indies (UWI-SRC at Trinidad et Tobago), The Fundacion Venezolana de Investigaciones Sismologicas (FUNVISIS, Venezuela), the Universidad de Oriente (UDO, Venezuela) and The University of Puerto Rico Seismic Network (Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.).

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Dernière validation de la BDD : jeudi 5 mai 2022